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Chronic Kidney Failure

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Chronic kidney failure, commonly known as chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a degenerative disorder marked by a progressive loss of kidney function over time. The kidneys filter waste products and surplus fluids from the blood, regulate blood pressure, and produce hormones that aid in the management of many body functions. CKD develops when the kidneys fail to work properly over an extended period of time. CKD is divided into five phases, each signifying a different level of kidney damage and diminished function. Early symptoms may be modest or nonexistent, making it difficult to recognize the illness. However, when CKD advances, symptoms such as weariness, extremity edema, changes in urine patterns, persistent itching, nausea, and difficulties concentrating may become more noticeable. CKD development and progression can be influenced by a variety of variables. Diabetes and high blood pressure are two of the most common causes. Other risk factors for CKD include specific drugs, autoimmune illnesses, urinary tract blockages, hereditary abnormalities, and recurrent kidney infections. A combination of medical history evaluations, physical exams, blood tests to measure creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urine tests to check for protein or blood, imaging tests like ultrasounds or CT scans, and, in rare situations, a kidney biopsy is used to make a diagnosis. While there is no cure for CKD, early detection and care can help slow its progression and manage symptoms. Treatment tries to address underlying causes, manage complications, and prevent additional kidney damage. Healthy eating habits, frequent exercise, limiting alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can all have a major impact on the course of CKD. When kidney function drops dramatically in advanced stages of CKD, treatment options may include dialysis or kidney transplantation to replace lost kidney function. Dialysis is the process of filtering waste materials and excess fluids from the blood using a machine. If feasible and effective, a kidney transplant can provide a more permanent treatment by replacing the failed kidney with a healthy donor kidney.