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Chronic Kidney Disease

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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a chronic illness marked by the progressive decrease of kidney function over time. The kidneys, which are key organs responsible for filtering waste items from the blood, controlling blood pressure, and maintaining electrolyte balance, become damaged and less efficient at these critical duties. The causes of CKD vary, but diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common. Other factors that can contribute to its development include genetic susceptibility, kidney infections, autoimmune illnesses, long-term use of certain drugs, and kidney stones. The quiet progression of CKD is one of its distinguishing hallmarks. Individuals may not detect any symptoms in the early stages. Symptoms such as weariness, weakness, swelling in the legs and ankles, changes in urination frequency or color, nausea, and difficulties concentrating may appear as the disease progresses. CKD, if left untreated, can lead to major problems such as renal failure, cardiovascular disease, anemia, bone disease, and, eventually, the need for dialysis or a kidney transplant. A series of tests are used to diagnose CKD, including blood tests to measure creatinine levels and estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine tests to detect protein or blood, imaging studies such as ultrasounds or CT scans, and sometimes kidney biopsies to determine the cause and severity of the disease. The primary goal of CKD management is to decrease its progression and manage complications. Adopting a low-sodium diet, controlling blood sugar levels in diabetics, managing blood pressure, stopping smoking, regular exercise, and keeping a healthy weight are all important lifestyle adjustments. Medications for blood pressure control, anemia treatment, and other problems may also be provided. Treatments such as dialysis or kidney transplantation may be required for people with severe CKD. When the kidneys can no longer perform this function efficiently, a machine is used to filter waste, salt, and excess fluid from the blood.A kidney transplant, on the other hand, replaces the damaged kidney with a healthy one from a donor, allowing the patient to live a healthier life. Regular monitoring and early intervention are critical in the management of CKD, emphasizing the necessity of routine check-ups and following medical recommendations to slow its course and avoid problems.