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Chromatography is a versatile and strong analytical technique utilized in a variety of scientific fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, and environmental research. At its core, chromatography is a separation process that allows complicated mixtures to be separated into their individual components based on differences in chemical characteristics. The basic idea of chromatography entails the dispersion of analytes between two phases: stationary and mobile. The stationary phase in chromatography is often a solid or liquid trapped within a column or on a solid support, whereas the mobile phase is a liquid or gas that travels through or over the stationary phase. The affinity of analytes for the stationary phase is a critical component in determining their separation in chromatography. Analytes having a higher affinity for the stationary phase move slower through the system, whereas those with a higher affinity for the mobile phase move faster. Because of this differential migration, discrete bands or peaks appear on the chromatogram, which provides a graphical representation of the separation process. There are numerous chromatography techniques, each with its own set of properties and applications. Liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are all common types of chromatography. Each of these procedures is suited to specific analytical needs, such as organic chemical separation, biomolecule identification, or environmental contaminant analysis. Chromatography is widely used in a variety of industries, including medicines, food analysis, forensics, environmental monitoring, and others. It is critical in quality control, medication development, and scientific research because it allows scientists to detect and quantify substances in complicated mixtures with great precision and sensitivity. Chromatography evolves with technology, delivering ever-improving capabilities and becoming a vital tool in modern analytical chemistry.