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Chemotherapy is a popular form of cancer treatment that employs the delivery of potent medications to specifically target and eliminate cancer cells. These medications function by preventing the cancer cells' rapid cell growth and division, which is a hallmark of malignancies. Chemotherapy can be administered in a number of ways, such as intravenously, orally, or by directly injecting the medication into the desired body cavity. The type and stage of the cancer, the patient's general condition, and their medical history all influence the decision of the chemotherapy plan. Drugs used in chemotherapy are made to not just target cancer cells but also normal, healthy cells, which can have a number of negative effects. Chemotherapy frequently causes side effects include nausea, vomiting, exhaustion, hair loss, and a compromised immune system. The impact on healthy cells has been lessened by the development of newer chemotherapy medications with fewer side effects and more targeted action, thanks to breakthroughs in medical science. Before surgery or radiation therapy, one of the main purposes of chemotherapy is to make tumors smaller and more manageable. When cancer has spread to several different parts of the body, it may occasionally be utilized as the main form of treatment. In addition to surgery, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and other treatment modalities, chemotherapy can also be a part of an all-encompassing treatment strategy.Depending on the type of disease and how each patient responds, chemotherapy treatments might vary in length and frequency. In order to give the body time to recuperate from its negative effects, chemotherapy can be given in cycles with breaks in between. To control side effects and preserve their quality of life, chemotherapy patients must receive ongoing medical attention and supporting care. Chemotherapy can be a successful cancer treatment, but there are drawbacks as well. During therapy, patients may feel physically and emotionally uncomfortable, and there is no guarantee as to how their health will fare in the long run. Nevertheless, continued oncology research and development work to make chemotherapy more effective and tolerable, giving hope to numerous people who have been given a cancer diagnosis. It is still a crucial part of the fight against cancer and is frequently combined with other therapy modalities to improve the prognosis and long-term survival rates.