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Schistosomes, also referred to as blood flukes, are a class of parasitic flatworms that significantly affect both human health and the environments they live in. Schistosomiasis, one of the most common and crippling neglected tropical illnesses in the world, is brought on by these elusive organisms. Vulnerable populations in tropical and subtropical areas, especially in Africa, where it is endemic in many areas, are the main targets of schistosomiasis. Blood flukes have a complicated life cycle that requires two hosts, usually mammals like humans and freshwater snails. The mammalian host's blood arteries are where the adult parasites live, reproduce, and release hundreds of eggs per day. Through urine or feces, these eggs leave the host's body and contaminate freshwater sources like rivers and lakes. Specific kinds of freshwater snails are infected by the miracidia that develop from the eggs once they are in the water. The cercariae, the infectious stage for humans, are produced through a sequence of alterations that the miracidia go through inside the snail. When people engage in activities like swimming, bathing, or doing laundry in contaminated water, it might result in human infection. The cercariae actively enter the bloodstream after vigorously penetrating the skin, moving on to the veins near the bladder and intestines where they develop into adult worms. These parasites have the potential to remain in the human body for years while producing a variety of health issues, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and in extreme cases, organ damage and even death. In addition to being seriously detrimental to health, schistosomiasis also has socioeconomic effects. As chronic sufferers frequently experience weariness and anemia, it might result in decreased productivity, particularly in regions with high infection rates. Blood fluke infections in children can also affect their growth and cognitive development, which can limit their ability to succeed in school and in the future. In conclusion, schistosomes, also known as blood flukes, are parasitic flatworms whose life cycle is closely related to freshwater ecosystems and human health. The illness they spread, schistosomiasis, continues to pose a serious threat to global health, particularly in areas of extreme poverty. In order to interrupt the cycle of transmission and enhance the wellbeing of affected populations, combating this neglected tropical illness necessitates a multimodal strategy that includes both medical interventions and socioeconomic development.