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Antipsychotic Agents

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Neuroleptics, another name for antipsychotic medicines, are a class of drugs used mostly to treat psychotic symptoms. These medications are crucial for the treatment of a number of mental illnesses, such as severe depression with psychotic symptoms, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. They reduce symptoms including delusions, disordered thinking, and hallucinations by changing the actions of neurotransmitters in the brain, especially dopamine and serotonin.Typical (first-generation) and atypical (second-generation) antipsychotics are the two primary classes of antipsychotic medicines. The first class of drugs to be produced were typical antipsychotics, which are distinguished by potent dopamine receptor blockage. Fluphenazine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol are a few examples. They are linked to an increased risk of extrapyramidal adverse effects, including dystonia, akathisia, parkinsonism, and tardive dyskinesia, even though they are beneficial in controlling symptoms. Patients may experience distress from these side effects, which could affect their long-term adherence to treatment. Atypical antipsychotics were created later and contain a wider range of receptors, including serotonin and dopamine receptors. Risperidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and quetiapine are among the drugs in this class. When compared to conventional antipsychotics, atypical antipsychotics are linked to a decreased risk of extrapyramidal adverse effects. Because of their increased tolerability and decreased risk of movement problems, they are frequently chosen as first-line agents. They do have certain adverse consequences, though, like as weight gain, altered metabolism, and an elevated risk of diabetes. A number of criteria, such as the patient's unique symptoms, medical history, and possible adverse effect profile, influence the choice of antipsychotic drug. Individual differences in reaction to these drugs are prevalent, and some individuals may respond better to one class than the other. When putting patients on antipsychotics, healthcare professionals must keep a close eye on them because the right dosage and medicine may need to be changed over time. Antipsychotic medications are used for maintenance therapy to avoid relapse in disorders such as schizophrenia, in addition to treating acute symptoms of psychosis. Regular follow-up sessions are necessary for patients receiving long-term antipsychotic treatment in order to track the therapeutic effects as well as any possible side effects. The effective treatment of psychiatric diseases with antipsychotic medications requires collaborative care involving psychiatrists, primary care physicians, and patients.