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Medications intended to treat cancer are referred to as antineoplastic medicines, or anticancer drugs. They function by focusing on cancer cells and preventing their growth, frequently impairing their capacity to proliferate. Depending on the type and stage of the cancer, these medications are the cornerstone of treatment. They are used in different combinations and regimens. The following Cyclophosphamide: Cyclophosphamide is a member of the alkylating agent class, which stops cancer cells from proliferating by altering their DNA. Numerous cancers, including as lymphoma, breast cancer, and leukemia, are treated with it. The adverse effects of this medication, which is frequently injected, might include nausea, hair loss, and heightened vulnerability to infections. Paclitaxel: Paclitaxel is a taxane family member that inhibits the growth of cancer cells by maintaining the stability of microtubules, which are necessary for cell division. Paclitaxel inhibits the correct division of the cells by stabilizing these structures. It's frequently used to treat lung, breast, and ovarian malignancies. Neuropathy, hair loss, and bone marrow suppression are possible side effects. Imatinib: Imatinib is a medication used in targeted therapy. It works by inhibiting certain proteins, like BCR-ABL, which is overexpressed in some lung cancers and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Imatinib stops the growth and spread of cancer cells by inhibiting these proteins. Oral medication has transformed the way chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is treated. Muscle cramps, nausea, and edema are possible side effects. Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 protein on the surface of B-cells, which is implicated in some leukemias and lymphomas. Rituximab aids in the immune system's recognition and elimination of these malignant B-cells by attaching to CD20. It is frequently used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Fever, infections, and infusion responses are examples of side effects. Carboplatin: Carboplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy medication that functions similarly to cisplatin but has distinct adverse effects. It functions similarly to cisplatin by causing damage to cancer cells' DNA, which stops them from proliferating. Treatments for ovarian, lung, and other malignancies include carboplatin. When given intravenously, it can have adverse consequences such renal damage, low blood cell counts, and nausea. To sum up, antineoplastic therapies are a broad class of pharmaceuticals that address several facets of the growth and division of cancer cells. These medications, which range from more modern targeted medicines like imatinib and rituximab to more established cytotoxic agents like cyclophosphamide, are essential for the treatment of a number of cancers. They can have serious adverse effects even while they are effective, which emphasizes the continuous need for research toward more accurate and bearable cancer treatments.