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Antihyperglycemic drugs are prescribed mostly to patients with diabetes mellitus in order to reduce elevated blood sugar levels. These substances function via a variety of pathways to raise insulin secretion, lower hepatic glucose synthesis, improve peripheral tissue glucose absorption, or improve insulin sensitivity. The following lists some typical antihyperglycemic medications: One of the first-line drugs for type 2 diabetes treatment is metformin. It mainly functions by reducing the amount of glucose produced by the liver and raising insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. Metformin may also lessen the absorption of glucose from the intestine. When taken as a monotherapy, it does not result in hypoglycemia, but it can have gastrointestinal adverse effects such diarrhea and discomfort in the abdomen. Sulfonylureas: Sulfonylureas cause pancreatic beta cells to secrete more insulin, which lowers blood sugar levels. Glyburide, glipizide, and glimepiride are a few examples. Although they are useful in regulating blood sugar levels, there is a chance of hypoglycemia, particularly in older individuals or those with compromised renal function. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): TZDs, which include pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, increase the liver's, skeletal muscle's, and adipose tissue's sensitivity to insulin. They cause an increase in the absorption and utilization of glucose by activating PPAR-γ, a receptor that is activated by peroxisome proliferator. TZDs, however, are linked to negative consequences include fluid retention, weight gain, and an elevated risk of heart failure. Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4): Sitagliptin, saxagliptin, and linagliptin are examples of DPP-4 inhibitors. These medications function by preventing the enzyme DPP-4 from breaking down incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). DPP-4 inhibitors lower blood glucose levels by increasing insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon release by extending the activity of incretins. Although these medications are usually well taken, they can have modest side effects include headaches and upper respiratory tract infections. SGLT2 inhibitors: By preventing renal glucose reabsorption, SGLT2 inhibitors including canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin lower blood glucose levels and encourage glucosuria. They also cause a small amount of weight reduction and have been demonstrated to help type 2 diabetic patients' kidneys and hearts. Urinary tract infections, volume depletion, and vaginal mycotic infections are common adverse effects. Antihyperglycemic medications are essential for controlling hyperglycemia and lowering the risk of complications from diabetes; nevertheless, while choosing one of these medications, a patient's preferences, features, and comorbidities should be taken into account. In order to minimize side effects and maintain optimal glycemic control, careful monitoring and proper dose modifications are crucial.