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Acute Coronary Syndrome

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A abrupt decrease or blockage in blood flow to the heart muscle causes a variety of cardiac disorders known collectively as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Atherosclerosis, an accumulation of fatty deposits (plaques) inside the coronary arteries that deliver oxygen-rich blood to the heart, is the main contributing factor. Unstable angina (UA), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are the three main clinical manifestations of ACS. Unstable angina is characterised by chest pain or discomfort that is fresh, getting worse, or happening while at rest and is frequently a sign of a coming heart attack. When a coronary artery is partially blocked, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) results, damaging the heart muscle without a full-thickness heart attack. The most serious type, ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), is characterised by a full blockage of a coronary artery, depriving a major amount of the heart muscle of blood supply and, if not rapidly treated, resulting in irreparable damage. The chest pain or discomfort that is the defining symptom of ACS may extend to the neck, jaw, shoulder, back, or arm and is frequently reported as pressure, tightness, squeezing, or burning. Shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and dizziness are among more symptoms that may occur. In ACS instances, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential. To get the afflicted cardiac muscle's blood flow back on track, you need to seek immediate medical help. Invasive therapies like percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to unblock blocked arteries and restore blood flow may also be necessary to dissolve or stop future clots. As a result of a sudden decrease in blood flow to the heart or a blockage of that blood flow, a variety of cardiac diseases are referred to as acute coronary syndrome. In order to lessen the effects of ACS and enhance general cardiovascular health, early detection, prompt medical intervention, and long-term preventive measures are essential.