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In order to increase crop yields and ensure food security for a growing world population, fertilizers are crucial elements of contemporary agriculture. To supplement any vital nutrients that may be lacking in the natural environment, these chemical or organic chemicals are administered to the soil or plants. NPK, or nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, are the three main nutrients present in fertilizers. These elements are essential for plant growth because potassium promotes overall plant health and disease resistance, while phosphorus helps with flowering and root development, and nitrogen stimulates the growth of leaves and stems. Granular, liquid, and organic fertilizers are just a few of the many types of fertilizers available. Each type has advantages and drawbacks of its own. Granular fertilizers are frequently applied with machinery in large-scale agriculture and are reasonably simple to utilize. On the other hand, liquid fertilizers can be applied more precisely and are frequently employed in greenhouse environments or for specialized crops. Organic farmers use organic fertilizers like compost and manure since they are sustainable and can gradually enhance soil quality. Fertilizers have considerably enhanced crop yields and the amount of food produced worldwide, yet their overuse or inappropriate application can have detrimental environmental effects. Excessive fertilizer runoff from crops can contaminate water sources, causing issues like algal blooms and harm to aquatic ecosystems. A further factor that exacerbates climate change is the energy-intensive production of synthetic fertilizers, which increases greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable and precise farming methods are emerging as crucial techniques to deal with these problems. Utilizing technology, precision agriculture ensures that nutrients are given where and when they are most needed, minimizing waste and adverse environmental effects. Agriculture becomes more environmentally benign thanks to the development of slow-release and controlled-release fertilizers, which reduce nutrient leaching and runoff.Finally, by boosting crop output and providing food security, fertilizers have transformed agriculture. To prevent harm to the environment, their use must be carefully controlled. In the area of fertilizers, sustainable practices and technology advancements are essential for achieving a balance between agricultural productivity and environmental stewardship.