The crucial protein Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase, frequently abbreviated as ALK, is involved in numerous cellular processes and has drawn considerable attention in the field of oncology because of its connection to cancer. ALK is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is essential for controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It is frequently downregulated or missing in healthy adult tissues, despite the fact that it is regularly produced in particular tissues during embryonic development. One of ALK's best-known characteristics is its connection to cancer, particularly with several subtypes of lymphomas and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ALK can become abnormally activated as a result of chromosomal rearrangements, such as translocations, which cause the ALK gene to fuse with other genes. The EML4-ALK gene fusion, which affects a portion of NSCLC patients, is the most well-known of these fusion occurrences. ALK is constitutively activated as a result of this gene fusion, which promotes carcinogenesis and unchecked cell proliferation. For the treatment of tumors with ALK mutations, targeted medicines have emerged as a viable strategy. To directly target the hyperactive ALK kinase, disrupt its signaling, and stop tumor growth, small molecule inhibitors such as crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib, and brigatinib have been created. Patients with ALK-positive malignancies now have considerably better prognoses and quality of life because to these ALK inhibitors, which have demonstrated extraordinary success in clinical trials. ALK has been linked to a number of other illnesses and ailments in addition to cancer, such as neuroblastoma, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, and even neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Its numerous roles in both health and sickness make it a fascinating topic of study for scientists and physicians alike, and research into its various activities is still ongoing. Research into the complexities of ALK signaling and its dysregulation in disease states is still essential because it has the potential to provide novel therapeutic strategies and enhance patient outcomes in a variety of clinical settings.